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LHS Library Homepage: Citing Sources

Citation Help

General Guidelines

Your works cited list will include everything you cited within the text of your paper... only include materials that were directly cited in your paper.

For each work cited there are five main elements:

  1. Author's name (Last name, First name) (end with a period).
  2. Full title (as it appears on the title page) (end with a period).
  3. Place of publication (followed with a colon).
  4. Publisher (omit articles, use standard abbreviations, followed by a comma).
  5. Year of publication (end with a period).

For online sources you must also inlcude the date you accessed the material.

You must follow a specific format for the works cited list. 

  • Use the heading Works Cited.  Center the heading 2.5 cm from the top of the page.
  • List works in alphabetical order by author's last name.
  • Double space all lines.
  • Use a hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines of an entry.
  • Italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, websites online databases, films etc.  Put titles of articles, essays, stories, chapters of books, pages in websites, etc, in quotations.
  • Capitalize words of a title except for short words such as on, in, and, to etc. 

Citing Academic Databases & Journals

An article from a library's subscription database:

***NEW*** The name and place of the library is no longer required.

Jenson, Jill D. "It's the Information Age, so Where's the Information?" College Teaching

      52.3 (2004): 107-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Feb. 2005.


Article from an online scholarly journal (without page numbers):

***NEW*** If page numbers are not available, use n. pag.

Belau, Linda. “Trauma and the Material Signifier.” Postmodern Culture 11: 2 (2001): n. pag.

      Web. 20 Feb. 2006.

Citing Websites

Citing a website where an author is listed:

Peterson, Susan. The Life of Martin Luther. Susan Peterson, 2002. Web. 24 Jan. 2006.


***NEW*** If a URL is required, include it at the end of your citation. If the URL won't fit on one line, divide it after the slash and do not include a hyphen:

Peterson, Susan. The Life of Martin Luther. Susan Peterson, 2002. Web.

      24 Jan. 2006. <>.


Citing a website with a corporate author (organization or government department):

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Standards. EPA, 28

      Nov. 2006. Web. 24 Jan. 2007.


Citing a website with an unknown author:

Margaret Sanger Papers Project. History Dept., New York U, 18 Oct. 2000. Web. 6 Jan. 2007.


Citing a website with no title:

Yoon, Mina. Home page. Oak Ridge Natl. Laboratory, 28 Dec. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2007.


A short work from (or part of) a website:

***NEW*** If the date of publication is not available, use n.d.

Shiva, Vandana. "Bioethics:  A Third World Issue." Native Web. Native Web, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2007


Article from an online magazine:

Paulson, Steve. "Buddha on the Brain." Salon Media Group, 27 Nov. 2006.

      Web. 18 Jan. 2007.


Article from an online newspaper:

Rubin Joel. "Report Faults Charter School." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times,

      22 Jan. 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2005.

Did you know?

***NEW*** MLA guidelines:

  • Now requires the designation Web in each entry to let your reader know that you are using an online source.

***NEW*** Include a URL when:

  • Only when your instructor requires it, or
  • the reader cannot possibly locate the source without it.

***NEW*** MLA guidelines now call for works cited from the Web to use the abbreviations:

  • N.p. when there is no publisher or sponsor of the site given
  • n.d. when the date of publication is missing and
  • n. pag. when online sources are not paginated