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Evaluating Your Sources: Evaluating Your Sources

The CRAAP Test

is a way to evaluate a source based on the following criteria:  Ask questions to help you think about how to measure each of the criteria.





Purpose/Point of View

-- from California State University, Chico‚Äč



When was the information published?

Has the information been revised or updated?

Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well? 

If there are links, do they direct you to a reliable outside source?


Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question? 

Who is the intended audience?

Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?

Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?

Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper? 


Where does the information come from?

Is the information supported by evidence?

Has the information been reviewed or refereed?

Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?

Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?

Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?  


Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?

What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?

Is the author qualified to write on the topic?

Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?

Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net

Purpose/Point of View

What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?

Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?

Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?

Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?

Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases? 

CRAAP Test Practice

Use the following tutorial to help you understand how to break down a website.